Agriculture of Haryana
Known as the “Bread Basket of India”, Haryana has been in the forefront in terms of adoption of latest technologies in agriculture and is also counted as one of the leading states for Agriculture production in the country.
- Haryana is self-sufficient in food production and the second largest contributor to India’s central pool of food grains.
- The state makes an incredible contribution of 14 per cent to the Central Pool and has achieved 163.33 lakh MTs food grain production.
- The major Kharif crops are rice, jowar, bajra, maize, cotton, jute, sugarcane, sesame and groundnut, sown in April and May and harvested in November.
- The major Rabi crops are wheat, tobacco, gram, linseed, rapeseed and mustard, sown in late October or early November and harvested in March.
- About 86% of the area is arable, and of that 96% is cultivated.
- About 75% of the area is irrigated, through tube wells and an extensive system of canals.
- About 2/3rd of the State has assured irrigation, most suited for rice-wheat production system, whereas rain fed lands (around 1/5th) are most suited for rapeseed & mustard, pearl millet, cluster bean cultivation, agro-forestry and arid-horticulture.
- The ideal location of state bordering National Capital Region (NCR) enables access to a range of big markets and the international airport.
- Rice, wheat, rapeseed & mustard, bajra, cotton and sugarcane are the major crops with considerable scope for agricultural diversification as well as off farm opportunities.
- Cauliflower, onion, potato, tomato, chillies, guava and kinnow are the important horticultural crops having good potential.
- Allied sectors like dairying, poultry, fishery, aridhorticulture, mushroom farming, bee keeping, agro-forestry have great potential.
- 37 mandis in the State have been connected with the e-NAM (National Agricultural Market) scheme to make the system for marketing of agricultural produce smooth, transparent and farmer/arhtiyafriendly.
- The state ranks second in the country in fish productivity per hectare and has been declared as a ‘Fish Disease Free State’ by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.
The major Kharif crops of Haryana are rice, jowar, bajra, maize, cotton, jute, sugarcane, sesame and groundnut. For these crops the ground is prepared in April and May and the seeds are sown at the commencement of rains in June. The crops are ready for harvesting by the beginning of November. The major Rabi crops are wheat, tobacco, gram, linseed, rapeseed and mustard. The ground is prepared by the end of October or the beginning November and the crops are harvested by March. About 86% of the area is arable, and of that 96% is cultivated. About 75% of the area is irrigated, through tubewells and an extensive system of canals. Haryana contributed significantly to the Green Revolution in India in the 1970s that made the country self-sufficient in food production. The state has also significantly contributed to the field of agricultural education in the country. Asia’s biggest agricultural University Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University is located at Hisar and it has made a significant contribution in ushering in the ‘Green Revolution’ in the state.
|Net area sown
|Area sown more than once
|Total cropped area
|Production of crops
|Total food grains
|Total oil seeds
|Net area irrigated by —-
|Gross area irrigated
|Tubewells and pumping sets (2019-20)
|Animal Husbandry (2019-20)
|Area Stocked for Fisheries
|Number of Developed Gaushalas
|Registered working Factories
|Estimated number of workers employed in working Factories
Major Issues in Agriculture of Haryana: One of the green revolution states, Haryana has come a long way in food production. The last few decades have seen some radical changes in the agriculture sector of the state and production and productivity have increased many folds. Earlier, the primary focus of agriculture in the State had been to increase food production and to improve livelihood of farmers, now agriculture sector is gradually becoming a technologically driven dynamic profession. However, this success has also given rise to the second-generation problems.
Natural Resource Management
Soil Resources: The problems of soil degradation (soil compaction, soil salinity, sodicity, water logging, and pesticide residue), multiple nutrient deficiency, low organic carbon content and decline in the total factor productivity have been observed under different production systems in the State. Also the diversion of agricultural land for non-agricultural use is an emerging big problem.
Water Resources: At present, agriculture consumes about 80% of water. The availability of good quality water for assured irrigation is about 60% in the State. This availability of irrigation water will further decline in future due to more demand of fresh water for domestic and industrial use. Over exploitation of ground water in Haryana is emerging as a serious threat. About 65% of ground water resource in Haryana is brackish. Moreover, the fresh water is being polluted through release of untreated industrial effluents and sewage water in the canal system.
Major State Schemes: The State Government has launched Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojna to mitigate losses in the farm sector and provide financial support to the farmers in the event of failure of notified crops namely, paddy, bajra, maize and cotton in Kharif and wheat, barley, gram and mustard in the Rabi season. The Government is also promoting organic farming through adoption of organic villages by making cluster of 50 acre each and arranging certification under “Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana”. To prevent burning of crop residue and its better management, the Government has proposed an action plan for straw management equipments, training and demonstrations. The Government’s “Horticulture Vision” is to double the area under horticulture and triple the horticulture production in the State by 2030. 15 percent of the total cultivated area is envisaged to be brought under horticulture, up from the existing 7.5 percent. The Government has established the first Horticulture University in Karnal with three Regional Research Stations and envisions further international collaborations with global institutes and universities. Haryana State Co-operative Supply and Marketing Federation Limited (HAFED) procured Moong for the first time in the history of the State this year. State Advisory Prices being paid for Sugar Cane i.e. Rs. 320, Rs. 315, Rs. 310 for early, middle and late varieties of Sugar Cane are the highest in the country.
Cropping Pattern: Haryana is often called the “Food Mine” of the country. About 80% of the population of the state is agriculture dependent, directly or indirectly. Haryana is self-sufficient in producing food grains and is also a major contributor of food grains in meeting the needs of other states of the country. The world-famous Basmati Rice is produced here in abundance. The major cereals produced in the state include wheat, rice, maize and bajra.
The crop production of Haryana can be broadly divided into Rabi and Kharif. The main kharif crops in the state include sugarcane, groundnut, maize and paddy etc. The minor kharif crops are chillies, bajra, jawar, pulses and vegetables. The North Western part of the state is suitable for the cultivation of rice, wheat, vegetable and temperate fruits and the south-western part is suitable for high quality agricultural produce, tropical fruits, exotic vegetables and herbal and medicinal plants.
Farm Mechanisation: The agriculture and allied sector continue to be significant for the inclusive and sustainable growth of the Indian economy. Indian Agriculture Sector not only ensures food security but also provides employment for substantial volume of population, directly & indirectly. Though agriculture contributed only 17.4% to the country’s Gross Value Added for the year 2016-17 (at current prices), still it is a driver for demand creation. Farmers’ income has not been able to keep pace, such as to cater to increasing costs of production including that of rising labour wages. Hence, there is a strong case for labour-substituting farm/agriculture machinery. Parallelly, it is also important to note, that several activities are highly time-bound and unless executed as per schedule, the farmer is likely to suffer loss. Agriculture mechanization is an appropriate answer to such challenges. Farm mechanization, more appropriately agriculture mechanization will also let off the wage labour as also the farmer of the drudgery involved in manual operations, besides enhancing manpower productivity since skills are integral to machine-based operations.